Drive Oregon and Oregon Innovation Plan recommended for investment by legislators

Yesterday the Joint Ways and Means Subcommittee on Transportation and Economic Development passed SB 5528, the biennial budget for “Business Oregon,” the Oregon Business Development Department. The Budget now heads to the full Ways and Means Committee for consideration.
The budget includes some key provisions to support major opportunities to lower Oregon’s stubbornly high unemployment and lagging personal income levels. These include:

The Oregon Innovation Plan

The Oregon Innovation Plan is now in its third round of funding and has delivered impressive results for the state. The Subcommittee allocated sixteen million dollars this biennium for the Innovation Plan, a suite of initiatives to enhance industry innovation and the commercialization of research. The funding will go toward three industry initiatives and three signature research centers. The industry initiatives include improving innovation and productivity in the food processing industry (IPC) ($500k), catalyzing Oregon’s emerging electric vehicle industry through Drive Oregon ($1.2 million), and putting Oregon on the map for wave energy development and manufacturing through Oregon Wave Energy Trust (OWET) ($2.5 million). The Signature Research Centers include the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnology Institute (ONAMI) ($5.3 million), Oregon Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies Center (BEST) ($3.8 million) and the Oregon Translational Drug Institute (OTRADI) ($2.8 million).

In the midst of a historic recession, the Oregon Innovation Plan developed by the Oregon Innovation Council has been successful at incubating new ideas into growing businesses, helping established industries become more competitive and creating a new economic future for all Oregonians. In less than four years of state funding, the six initiatives of the Oregon Innovation Plan have brought $195 million in federal and private grants back to Oregon and are on track to generate more than $7 for every dollar the legislature has invested, not to mention the creation of 1117 jobs and the incubation of 15 new companies.

For more details on how the funding will be used, visit

Drive Oregon (electric vehicle group) clears hurdle

A key state economic agency says Oregon should plug $2.45 million into its growing electric vehicle sector and that support for the fledgling industry could spur significant gains.

Though there are still several steps before the industry receives funding, the news is good for dozens of organizations that either provide research and design to the electric vehicle sector or manufacture vehicles, charging stations, batteries and components.

Their collaborative plan for growing the industry, called Drive Oregon, received a funding recommendation from the Oregon Innovation Council Aug. 16, emerging at the top of 23 contenders in a competitive review. It was the only new initiative recommended for funding by the council this biennium, along with five others currently supported by the state.

Oregon InC, as the council is also called, acts as an economic development adviser through a partnership with research universities and the private sector. Council members include business heavyweights, legislators and academic leaders who evaluate new pitches from industry.

Sectors that win the council’s favor have seen big benefits. But earning its recommendation takes work. Each contender must provide a careful plan for success, and industry leaders also have to prove they have the time, the leadership and the resources to turn a state investment into new companies and jobs. Since 2005, only five other sectors have made the cut.

Now, if the Oregon Business Development Department Commission and the legislature sign on, $2.45 million would convert Drive Oregon into a nonprofit corporation that could use state funds to leverage federal and other grants, plus private investments.

“We would be looking at having Drive Oregon actually supply some of the services necessary to go after those resources,” said Mark Frohnmayer, founder of Arcimoto, a Eugene company that builds electric vehicles, and a member of the steering committee for Drive Oregon.

“We’ve mapped out some 40-plus organizations that are already participating in (the sector). One of the very common threads we found though was a lack of capital resources to really get stuff off the ground,” he said. “By specifically constituting this initiative around assisting companies in this space with their needs, we think that’s going to help kickstart, not only startup and incubation points, but bringing products into the space.”

If funded, Drive Oregon would face a daunting to do list: create 166 jobs in two years, establish a regulatory and testing framework for the next generation of ultra efficient vehicles; stoke collaboration between researchers, companies, utilities and government; and marry Oregon’s existing clean tech companies with other manufacturing, software and high tech businesses.

John Doussard, a policy analyst for the Oregon Business Development Department who works with Oregon InC, said the council found several reasons to support the plan.

“We’ve already got the beginnings of national leadership here in Oregon,” he said.

With a federal goal of putting one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015, Doussard said Drive Oregon stands a good chance of bringing money here, particularly while Portland stands out as one of the largest consumer markets for electric vehicles in the nation.

Though Oregon’s budget crisis will be a significant hurdle to funding Drive Oregon in 2011, Doussard expressed optimism. Oregon InC’s recommendation will weigh heavily in the plan’s favor is clear.

Other sectors that have won the council’s backing have seen steady state funding and solid growth.

Five other initiatives recommended by Oregon InC support nanotechnologies and micro-level manufacturing; the development of green building materials and alternative fuel sources; commercialization of therapies to fight infectious diseases; development of wave energy, and innovation among Oregon’s food processing and seafood industries.

Seeded with $42 million in state money since 2007, the initiatives have lured $195 million back to Oregon. They played a role in launching 15 new companies and developing products from portable kidney dialysis machines to new drugs to fight malaria. Officials say the initiatives help create and retain more than 660 jobs, and provide research and development assistance to 155 companies.

The Oregon Business Development Department Commission will vote on the Drive Oregon initiative Sept. 24.

From:  Sustainable Business Oregon by Lee van der Voo

Driving Oregon’s Future

A group of state and local government, higher education, and businesses — including PGE — is working to expand the electric vehicle infrastructure in Oregon, to bring the newest electric vehicles to market here and develop new business opportunities that benefit the environment.


America’s Electric Car Capitals According to Forbes

Forbes' List of America's Electric Car Capitals


The Full List of America’s Electric Car Capitals:

  • Portland, Oregon
  • San Diego, California
  • San Francisco Bay area, California
  • Indianapolis, Indiana
  • Nashville, Tennessee
  • Raleigh, North Carolina
  • Tampa, Florida
  • Los Angeles, California
  • Austin, Texas
  • Seattle, Washington
  • Denver, Colorado
  • Phoenix/Tucson, Arizona


Electric Vehicle Deployment Act of 2010 – Section-by-Section

EVDA as introduced

The purpose of the Electric Vehicle Deployment Act of 2010 is to promote the rapid, near-term deployment of plug-in electric drive vehicles in order to reduce dependence on imported oil, to strengthen the national economy, and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

With the transportation sector driving approximately 70 percent of the country’s oil demand, powering vehicles from alternative fuel sources is a necessary top priority for reducing the country’s oil dependence. Electric-drive cars and trucks represent the most promising near-term opportunity to reduce our dependence on foreign oil.

The Electric Vehicles Deployment Act aims to accelerate the introduction electric cars and trucks throughout the country by creating a national program to support the deployment of electric vehicles and by identifying and supporting at least 5 and up to 15 electric vehicle deployment communities. The bill offers significant incentives over 5 years to these deployment communities to integrate large numbers of vehicles and the necessary infrastructure. The target is to see the introduction of 700,000 electric vehicles in the selected communities. This will enable communities in different parts of the country and of different sizes to “learn by doing,” by experimenting with different approaches to deploying electric vehicles (including questions of how much charging infrastructure to deploy and how to plan for and manage it). It will also demonstrate how electric vehicles can be deployed relatively rapidly at a high market penetration rate in a community. Deployment communities will provide critical information to other communities about how to efficiently deploy electric vehicles in their own backyards. In addition, the bill extends certain incentives nationally to continue preparing for broad deployment across the country, and it invests in key research and development priorities.

Section 1: Short title

Section 2: Findings

Section 3: Definitions

Section 4: National Electric Drive Vehicle Deployment Program

This section establishes a program in the Department of Energy that will develop a national plan for supporting the deployment of electric drive vehicles, and will provide technical assistance on the deployment of electric drive vehicles to communities throughout the country, with a focus on communities that are not selected in the Targeted Electric Drive Vehicle Deployment Communities Program (section 5) but which are good candidates for electric vehicle deployment.

Section 5: Targeted Electric Vehicles Deployment Communities Program

This section establishes a program within the National Electric Drive Vehicle Deployment Program to competitively select “deployment communities” based on their plans to support the deployment of electric vehicles. Deployment communities will be eligible for additional incentives and they will share information with the Department of Energy that will be used to inform best practices for implementing vehicle electrification.

Selection of deployment communities: State, tribal, or local governments may apply to become a deployment community. The application will describe the community’s plan to encourage the deployment of electric vehicles and related infrastructure, and it should demonstrate buy-in from relevant stakeholders such as public and private utilities, government agencies, and providers of electric drive motor vehicles and charging infrastructure. The Secretary of Energy will choose at least 5 and not more than 15 deployment communities that reflect diverse populations, geography, and models for deploying electric drive motor vehicles. At least one deployment community will have a population of less than 125,000.

Grants and cost sharing: Two billion dollars will be authorized for the Program (note that other sections of the bill provide for other incentives, such as an enhanced tax credit program, that are specific to deployment communities). Communities must provide at least 20 percent of the funding for their proposed electric vehicle deployment program from non-federal sources.

Continuation of program: Phase 1 of the Program will last for 5 years from the date that deployment communities receive their grants. The Secretary of Energy will report to Congress on Phase 1 of the Program and will assess whether the Program should be extended and/or modified, and make suggestions for Phase 2, if warranted.

Section 6: Tax Credits

Tax credit for qualified buyers within deployment communities: Raises the tax credit by $2,500 to a maximum of $10,000 and makes the tax credit refundable and transferrable, so that the tax credit can function like a point-of-sale rebate, for deployment community taxpayers only.  Entities that take this enhanced credit may not receive the electric vehicle tax credit available nationwide – no double-dipping.

Nationwide tax credit for qualified buyers and manufacturer’s cap: Maintains the current $7,500 tax credit and raises the number of vehicles that qualify for tax credits from 200,000 to 300,000 vehicles per manufacturer before an incremental phase-out.

Medium- and heavy-duty hybrid vehicles: Extends and expands tax credits for medium- and heavy-duty hybrid and plug-in hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles

Refueling property tax credit: Extends the current 50 percent nationwide tax credit for all electric charging stations, including residential and publicly available)  through  2016, subject to current price caps. The tax credit is also made transferrable nationwide.

Section 7. Electric Vehicle Refueling Property Bonds and Loan Guarantees

Creates a new qualified tax credit bond that can be issued by governmental bodies, public power providers, or electric cooperatives to fund qualified electric vehicle refueling properties.  This cannot be used if the tax credit is used. This section also clarifies that electric vehicle charging infrastructure is eligible for loan guarantees under Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

Section 8. Utility Planning for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Requires electric utilities to consider the potential levels of plug-in penetration that they might expect to see on their systems in the near term, investigate the potential impacts on their transmission and distribution infrastructure, and plan for the deployment of electric vehicles in their service area.  Any utility that does not anticipate meaningful electric vehicle penetration on their system can request that this requirement be waived.  The bill also asks State Utility Commissions to participate in any local plan for deploying charging infrastructure, require infrastructure interoperability, consider how it interacts with smart grid, and start to consider  rate recovery for utility plans.

Section 9. Federal Fleets

Electricity as a fuel: Directs the federal government to count electricity used to refuel a plug-in electric drive motor vehicle as an alternative fuel.

Report on electric vehicle potential in federal fleets: Directs the Federal Energy Management Program and the General Services Administration to compile a report on how many plug-in electric drive vehicles could be deployed in federal fleets based on needed functionality and costs. Federal agencies are to request funding for these vehicles in their annual budget requests.

Pilot program: Directs the Administrator of the General Services Administration to acquire and deploy plug-in electric drive vehicles to be used in a pilot program in federal fleets and authorizes funds to cover incremental costs.

Section 10. Advanced Batteries for Tomorrow Prize

Directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a competition for the development of a 500-mile vehicle battery.

Section 11. Research and Development

Research and Development: Establishes an R&D program in DOE to work on all aspects of the development, production, and deployment of electric vehicles.

Secondary use applications program: Establishes a research, development, and demonstration program in the Department of Energy to identify and assess possible uses for vehicle batteries at the end of their useful life in a vehicle. Provides grants for selected demonstration projects.

Materials recycling program: Directs the Secretary of Energy to carry out a study on recycling materials from electric vehicles and batteries.

Section 12. Study on the Supply of Raw Materials

Directs the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a study identifying the raw materials needed to manufacture plug-in electric vehicles, batteries, and other components, to describe the known sources of these materials and the risk associated with their supply, and to identify ways to secure the supply chain of critical raw materials.

Section 13. Plug-in Electric Drive Vehicle Technical Advisory Committee

Establishes a technical advisory committee to advise the Secretary of Energy on matters relating to plug-in electric drive vehicles. The committee is to coordinate with the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technical Advisory Committee and the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee.

Section 14. Plug-in Electric Drive Vehicle Interagency Task Force

Establishes an Interagency Task Force, chaired by the Secretary of Energy, to coordinate federal actions related to plug-in electric drive vehicles and infrastructure.

Section 15. Prohibition on Disposing of Advanced Batteries in Landfills

Batteries from plug-in electric drive motor vehicles must be disposed of in accordance with the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act.

Section 16. Loan Guarantees for Advanced Battery Purchases for Use in Stationary Applications

Provides loan guarantees for eligible entities that purchase more than 200 qualified automotive batteries in a calendar year for use in nonautomotive applications.  This program will help attract battery manufacturing facilities to the U.S. while plug-in electric drive vehicle production is still ramping up.

Section 17. Model Updating Building Codes, Permitting and Inspection Processes, and Zoning or Parking Rules

Directs the Secretary of Energy to develop and publish model building codes that include charging infrastructure, model construction and permitting codes that allow for expedited installation of charging infrastructure, and model zoning, parking rules, or other local ordinances that apply to publicly available charging infrastructure.

Section 18. Workforce Training

Provides grants for training first responders, electricians, contractors, and engineers who will be installing infrastructure, code inspection officials, dealers, mechanics, and others. Provides grants for programs in designing plug-in electric drive motor vehicles and associated components and infrastructure.

See also:  Electric Vehicle Deployment Act of 2010

Electric Vehicle Deployment Act of 2010

Senators Byron Dorgan (D-ND), Lamar Alexander (R-TN), and Jeff Merkley (D-OR) introduced today the “Electric Vehicle Deployment Act of 2010,” a bill that promotes the rapid, near-term deployment of plug-in electric drive motor vehicles. The bill would create “deployment communities” across the country, where targeted incentive programs for electric vehicles and charging infrastructure systems would help demonstrate rapid market penetration and determine what “best practices” would be helpful for nationwide deployment of electric vehicles.

Dorgan – Alexander – Merkley

Electric Vehicle Deployment Act of 2010

 To rapidly deploy 700,000 electric vehicles in the near-term


1)       National Electric Drive Vehicle Deployment Program

  • Directs the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to support the nationwide deployment of electric vehicles and to offer technical assistance to states and communities across that country as they prepare for plug-in electric drive vehicles.


2)      Electric Vehicle Deployment Community Program

A minimum of 5 and maximum of 15 “Electric Vehicle Deployment Communities”
  • Each community can apply for up to a $250 million total grant, with a local cost share of at least 20%.
  • DOE will select communities based on criteria such as, partnership with key stakeholders in the public and private sectors, local cost share levels, the quality of the community’s plan for deploying electric vehicles, and evidence of the plan’s likelihood for success.
  • Selected communities will demonstrate a high level of electric vehicle integration through a 5-year grant program, covering charging infrastructure, building code updates, workforce training, or other needs.
Electric Vehicle purchasing incentives
  • Increases the maximum tax credit to $10,000 (from $7,500) in deployment communities, and makes the tax credit transferable and refundable so that car-buyers can get the value of the tax credit at the point of sale. Point of sale rebate must be taken in lieu of the existing vehicle tax credit               
Charging Infrastructure incentives
  • Eligible for 50% tax credit for installing electric vehicle charging infrastructure


3)      Nationwide Incentives

Electric Vehicle purchasing incentives
  • Increases the number of tax credit eligible vehicles for each manufacturer from 200,000 to 300,000 vehicles
  • Extends and expands the credit for medium/heavy duty hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles
  • Extends the current 50% tax credit (expiring in 2010) for electric charging infrastructure for 6 years and makes the credit transferable.
  • Also creates a new bonding program to help local governments, public power providers, and cooperative electric companies pay for charging infrastructure in lieu of the current tax credit.


4)      Research and Development and Other Programs

  • R&D to reduce battery and other electric vehicle component costs – $1.5 billion
  • Competition to invent the 500-mile battery – $10 million prize (first battery to meet a cost/kwh threshold)

Workforce training grants to educational institutions for the establishment of programs that will provide training and education for vocational workforce (first responders, electricians/contractors installing infrastructure, code inspection officials, dealers/mechanics)

See also:  Electric Vehicle Deployment Act of 2020, Section-by-Section

California rules on sale of electricity for electric cars

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued a proposed decision of importance to the nascent electric vehicle marketplace with a ruling on the sale of electricity for use in electric cars. 

A key uncertainty amongst the electric car market and its associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure is how utility regulators will view service providors of electric car charging.  The CPUC

concludes that the ownership or operation of a facility that sells electricity at retail to the public for use only as a motor vehicle fuel and the selling of electricity at retail from that facility to the public for use only as a motor vehicle fuel does not make the corporation or person a public utility within the meaning of Public Utility Code § 2161 solely because of that sale, ownership or operation.

 This rulemaking allows more diversity in business models with competitive access to electricity for charging, provides better clarity for future investment, and facilitates more rapid deployment of electric car charging infrastructure. 

The proposed decision is Phase 1 of rule-making as California considers alternative-fueled vehicle tariffs, infrastructure and policies to support California’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.  The proceeding will remain open for consideration of a number of additional issues to be addressed in a Phase 2 decision, including:

  • Any health and safety issues related to electric vehicle charging and the associated infrastructure;
  • The appropriate utility role in the provision of electric vehicle charging services to the public;
  • The appropriate utility role with respect to charging equipment on the customer’s side of the meter;
  • Ways in which the utilities can further help to streamline the installation of home charging infrastructure;
  • Cost allocation, including a consideration of the circumstances in which the costs of any distribution system upgrades should be borne by an individual customer or be recoverable from all customers;
  • Principles for electric vehicle time-variant rates to align rates with system costs and impacts;
  • Metering requirements;
  • Any modifications to tariff rules needed to implement the adopted pricing policies;
  • Development of appropriate smart charging programs or policies to manage the impacts of electric vehicle charging on the grid; • Intra – and inter – utility billing policies; and
  • Other issues.

With widely varying positions the rulemaking has been contentious, particularly as California is expected to be one of the earliest and largest markets for plug-in electric vehicles. California could be a possible model for other states’ Public Utilities Commissions (PUC) as they consider adoption of regulations for electric car charging.

Buyers reserve 20 percent of Nissan Leaf electric cars in first 3 days

Early adopters of electric cars reserve early.

Nissan Motors Co. said Friday that buyers have already reserved more than 20 percent of the first year’s production of its Leaf electric car in the first 3 days of taking reservations.

About 6,600 U.S. consumers have paid the $99 reservation fee and 3,700 in Japan have done the same.  Nissan said it will make about 50,000 Leaf electric cars the first year.  The automaker said it wants to have about 40 percent of production reserved by December, when the car goes on sale.  The car will initially only be available in California, Oregon, Seattle, Arizona and east-central Tennessee when it first rolls out in December 2010. Nissan has said it will roll out nationwide in 2011.

Nissan began taking reservations on Tuesday from amongst the 115,000 pool of early registrants (Leaf “hand raisers”) who expressed interest in the Nissan Leaf electric car.  The all-electric car will cost $32,780, though government subsidies will reduce the cost through a federal tax credit of $7,500. 

The Nissan Leaf is one of the early mass-market electric cars to market when scheduled sale later this year.  Is the Leaf electric car’s early adoption interest a harbinger of mainstream consumer demand for electric cars?  I’m curious about the demand of other electric cars and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) like the GM Volt will fare when finally released.

A new segmentation for electric vehicles (pt. 2) – Driving Missions are Short and Local

The term “range anxiety” is often used to characterize the general concern about an electric cars’ relatively shorter driving distance between refueling as compared to the driving distance between refilling in a gas or diesel-fueled car. How much of a concern should driving range in an electric car be?

MacKinsey and Company’s report on electric car segmentation suggests electric vehicles (EV) should be designed for specific driving missions rather than an “everything-for-everybody” approach as typical for conventional car design. What is a specific driving mission? How does an average person drive?

To answer such questions I looked up data from the National Household Travel Survey, here is what I found out about how Americans drive:

Trip Length: Short and Local

Most driving is short and local – the average trip length per vehicle is 9.5 miles, including short and long trips and travel on weekdays and weekends. Figure 1 shows the distribution of trips and miles by trip length category. The first distribution is a straight summary of all reported trips by the trip length. Most of the trips are very short (61 percent of all trips in an average day are less than five miles in length).

The second distribution uses the total miles of passenger travel in an average day (2.3 trillion miles of passenger travel) and the distribution of those miles by trip length. This is a more even distribution—for example, 13.5 percent of all daily miles are in trips of five miles or less and 15.3 percent of all daily miles are in trips of 100 miles or more.

Daily Driving Distance (Range): Less than 75 miles typically

Interestingly, the total miles driven in a day for an average driver are summed for all travel in a day, the distribution is much different. Figure 2 shows the mileage accrued in an average day by all U.S. drivers, and by urban and rural drivers. Overall, 56 percent of U.S. drivers report 30 miles or less of total travel in an average day, and 75 percent report less than 75 miles in a day.

Urban drivers typically accrue fewer miles than rural drivers in an average day. For example, while 25 percent of all drivers travel more than 50 miles in a typical day, the distribution of miles for urban vs. rural drivers is different. Only 22.5 percent of urban drivers accrue more than 50 miles in a day, in contrast with 34.3 percent for rural drivers. The difference becomes more pronounced at the lower and higher mileage levels. Note that 77.5 percent of all drivers live in urban areas compared to 22.5 percent of drivers who live in rural areas. Not only is an electric car more suited for typical urban driving, there’s greater availability and access for recharging too.

Conclusion: EV Range suitable for Typical Driving

An electric car is well suited for most people’s typical average driving profile. Of course that doesn’t necessarily mean an EV works for every driving purpose. Yet when considering typical driving patterns, EV range is perhaps not as much an issue. Other solutions exist such as carsharing, where the use of a car can be treated more as a service as an alternative to traditional car ownership and car rental. I’ll come back to such innovations that I call Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) in a subsequent posting. Just as cloud computing and software as a service(SaaS) represented paradigm shifts in other sectors, Mobility as a Service has the potential to change how we use automobiles and transportation.

Related posts:

A new segmentation for electric vehicles – McKinsey Quarterly

Electrification Roadmap (part 4 of 4) – Strategic Deployment


Strategic Deployment

  • 4.1 Overview
  • 4.2 Demonstration Projects
  • 4.3 Phase One : 2010–2013
  • 4.4 Phase two: 2014–2018


Strategic Deployment

Early adopters will eagerly purchase the first grid-enabled vehicles once they hit the market. The primary challenge will be in expanding the market beyond these narrow groups to the general population of drivers. This will ensure that GEVs have a meaningful impact on U.S. energy security and that they do not become niche products. To facilitate that process, the government should launch a select number of electrification ecosystems — communities chosen on a competitive basis in which resources are concentrated in order to promote the deployment of GEVs. In doing so, a range of market participants can work together to demonstrate that GEVs meet drivers’ needs. Ecosystems will also allow participants to learn which business models work for supplying, selling, and servicing GEVs and help to create economies of scale. The lessons learned in electrification ecosystems can serve to inform other communities, thereby lowering the cost of deployment and accelerating national deployment rates.

4.1 Overview

Concentrating government resources in a small number of communities to serve as electrification ecosystems provides the United States the best opportunity to deploy a large number of GEVs as quickly as possible and achieve President Obama’s goal of placing 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2015.

4.2 Demonstration Projects

Investing in electrification ecosystems will allow all interested parties to work together to demonstrate the viability of GEVs and identify business models that will allow each portion of the GEV supply chain to operate profitably, while taking advantage of the economies of scale achievable by concentrating resources in a select number of communities.

4.3 Phase One: 2010 — 2013

Between 2010 and 2013, the government can help lay the groundwork for the deployment of 700,000 GEVs in six to eight American cities. The effort will require a combination of focused government subsidies for consumers and utilities, in addition to the installation of a public charging network and other measures of support.

4.4 Phase Two: 2014–2018

By 2014, the electrification ecosystem program should expand to an additional 20 to 25 cities. Target deployment should be 7 million GEVs by 2018. By employing lessons learned in phase one, phase two ecosystems can achieve greater scale at reduced cost.


Hostile state actors, insurgents, and terrorists have made clear their intention to use oil as a strategic weapon against the United States. Steadily rising global oil prices add to the danger by exacerbating tensions among consuming nations. And excessive reliance on oil constrains the totality of U.S. foreign policy and burdens a U.S. military that stands constantly ready as the protector of last resort for the vital arteries of the global oil economy. Our dependence on oil not only undermines our national security and the conduct of our foreign policy, it undermines our economic strength. High and volatile prices result in the loss of hundreds of billions of dollars in our economy each year; destroy household, business and government budgets; and have been contributing, if not primary, factors leading to every recession over the past 40 years. It is impossible to escape the conclusion that reducing U.S. oil dependence is a critical task for the current generation of Americans.

Related posts:

Electrification Roadmap Released by Electrification Coalition